H. PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES

1.    Growing From Seed
2.    Hardening-off & Planting out Young Plants
3.    Taking Cuttings
4.    Layering
5.    Grafting
6.    Division

1. GROWING FROM SEED

Seed Trays & Containers

The cheapest and easiest way to sow seed is direct in the soil outside and I would encourage you to do this when the soil is warm enough, more of which later. However, for early crops when it is still cold in late winter or early spring, then there are definite advantages to sowing in seed trays. Also, if you are growing vegetables intensively, where space is at a premium, then starting seedlings in seed trays will help not to take up valuable space in the garden bed.

Use a seed tray that is a minimum of 7-8 cm (2¾-3in) deep. Shallow trays do not provide enough depth to grow the best roots. You can make your own out of untreated wood, buy kits, or hunt around the back of garden centres or your local recycling centre for expanded polystyrene packaging boxes, make drainage holes in the bottom and you have a seed tray.

SEED BOXES

Seed box plastic

 

7cm (2¾in) deep wooden seed trays        

 

 

 

 

12cm (4½in) deep polystyrene box with holes

 

 

Toilet centres

For the larger seeds, pots and cardboard toilet roll centres are useful especially for those seedlings that do not enjoy root disturbance, for example, sweet corn. Save your toilet roll centres through the winter for the spring sowing session. Take some cardboard toilet roll centres and prop them up in a seed tray or plastic container.

Toilet roll pots

Push a half sheet of kitchen paper towelling down into the bottom and then almost fill with your seed compost. Sow two large seeds, in case one does not geminate. If both come up prick one out. When it is time to plant out your seedlings, just plant the whole cardboard tubes, which will rot away as the plants grow.

You can also make seed pots out of newspaper, here’s how:

Things You’ll Need:

  1. Black and white newsprint
  2. Tall glass or jar with straight sides, or washed food tin
  3. Seed compost
  4. Plastic tray

How to Make:

  1. Lay a full sheet of black and white newspaper flat. Don’t use shiny, coloured paper as it may contain heavy metals.
  2. Fold the paper in half lengthwise twice to form a long, narrow strip of folded newspaper, several layers thick.

3.Lay the glass on its sidPaper pots_1e and place it on one end of the strip of paper. Roll the newspaper around the glass. The glass is used only as a form to roll the paper. About ½ of the strip of paper should overlap the open end of the glass.

Paper rollup

 

 

 

4. Push the ends of the paper into the open end of the glass. This step doesn’t need to be neat and tidy; just stuff the overlapping newspaper into the glass.

 

 

Paper final5. Push the ends of the paper into the open end of the glass. This step doesn’t have to be neat and tidy; just stuff the overlapping newspaper into the glass.
6. Pull the jar out of the newspaper pocket so you have the newspaper pot in your hand.
Push the bottom of the jar into the newspaper cup, squashing the folded bottom to flatten. This step will seal the bottom of your pot. Once the pot has been filled with soil, the bottom will be secure.
Pull the jar out and you have a finished paper pot.

As with the cardboard toilet tubes, just plant the whole thing with the established seedling inside in the soil, the roots will find their way out through the moist paper and it will rot down as the plant grows.

Seed Compost

If you have to buy seed compost, buy only organic seed compost, which won’t have fungicides in. Unfortunately, the only organic seed composts I have found are basically composted bark with additives, or peat, which I have not found very satisfactory. We have always made our own. Seed compost especially should be well aerated and warm, but contain little available nutrients or salts. Seedlings have some food in their first leaves (cotyledons) and it will not be long before they are pricked out into richer potting compost, or planted out into soil.

To help your young seedlings get off to a good start and improve their resistance to damping off and other diseases, you can add beneficial fungi Trichoderma viride to your compost. Trichoderma predates and kills the nasty fungi.

BASIC POSSIBLE INGREDIENTS

  • Loam (top soil, often made from rotted lawn turfs)
  • Garden Compost
  • Worm Compost
  • Leaf Mould (homemade from deciduous leaves)
  • Composted Bark (needs to be fine)
  • Sharp Sand (coarse gritty sand)
  • Vermiculite

EXTRA INGREDIENTS

  • Garden Lime
  • Eco or Organic Fertiliser
  • Seedling Innoculant Trichoderma virid – this controls damping-off, and other fungus diseases of seedlings – (see the section, ‘PESTS & DISEASES- THE NEW GENERATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS – Biological Pest & Disease Control for a list of suppliers in your country).

Seed Compost Recipes

1) This first recipe is based on loam – healthy garden topsoil, or rotted turfs sieved through a 9mm garden sieve. To make loam from rotted turfs see the section, ‘PLANNING A GARDEN’, sub-section: Making a  Vegetable Bed From a Grass Lawn. I have also included gypsum, which will supply Sulphur and Calcium without affecting the pH + Garden lime.

  • 2 buckets loam (preferably from rotted turfs)
  • 1 bucket sieved leaf mould or composted bark (or ½ bucket of each)
  • ½ bucket sharp sand
  • 1 handful garden lime
  • Seedling Innoculant Trichoderma viride (optional)

2) This second recipe uses garden compost that is thoroughly broken down into dark brown crumbly earth.

  • 1 bucket well rotted and sieved garden compost
  • 1 bucket of sieved leaf mould or composted bark (or ½ bucket of each)
  • ½ bucket sharp sand
  • 1 handful garden lime
  • Seedling Innoculant Trichoderma viride (optional)

3) This recipe has perlite as an additional aid to both aerate and improve the water holding capacity of the compost – ideal for larger seeds, especially peas and beans.

  • 1 bucket well rotted and sieved garden compost
  • 1 bucket leaf mould or composted bark (or ½ bucket of each)
  • ½ bucket sharp sand, or fine grit
  • ½ bucket perlite
  • 1 handful garden lime
  • Seedling Innoculant Trichoderma viride (optional)

4) This recipe is good for larger seeds that need more nutrients and may stay longer in their pots, deep trays, cardboard tubes, or paper pots – such as sweet corn, squash, melon and zucchini etc.

  • 1 bucket well rotted and sieved garden compost
  • 1 bucket leaf mould or composted bark (or ½ bucket of each)
  • ½ bucket sharp sand
  • 2 handfuls Eco or Organic Fertiliser
  • 1 handful garden lime
  • Seedling Innoculant Trichoderma viride (optional)

Sowing Seeds

Having bought your seeds, or saved some – store them in small paper envelops, with the date, plus the last year they can be sown.

Here is a chart telling you how long different vegetable seeds last if kept dry. If they are older than that – throw them away!

Plant Average Most Common
Arugula 4 years 4 years
Asparagus 3 years 3 years
Basil 5 years 5 years
Beans (bush and pole) 2-3 years 2 years
Beets 3-5 years 4 years
Brassica (broccoli) 3-5 years 3 years
Brassica (Brussels sprouts) 3-5 years 4 years
Brassica (cabbage) 3-5years 4 years
Brassica (cauliflower) 3-5 years 4 years
Brassica (Chinese cabbage) 3-5 years 3 years
Brassica (collards) 3-5 years 5 years
Brassica (kale) 3-5 years 4 years
Brassica (kohlrabi) 3-5 years 3 years
Carrot 2-3 years 3 years
Celery 2-5 years 3 years
Celeriac 3 years 3 years
Chard (Swiss) 3-5 years 4 years
Chicory 4 years 4 years
Corn (sweet) 1-2 years 2 years
Cress (watercress & landcress) 5 years 5 years
Cucumber 5-10 years 5 years
Eggplant/Aubergine 3-5 years 4 years
Endive 5 years 5 years
Leek 2-3 years 2 years
Lettuce 1-6 years 5 years
Melon (muskmelons) 5-10 years 5 years
Melon (watermelons) 4-10 years 4 years
Mustard 4 years 4 years
Okra 2 years 2 years
Onion 1 year 1 year
Parsley 1 year 1 year
Parsnip 1 year 1 year
Pea 2-3 years 2 years
Pepper (sweet & chilli) 2 years 2 years
Radish 5 years 5 years
Swede 4 years 4 years
Salsify 1 year 1 year
Spinach 1-5 years 3 years
Spinach (New Zealand) 3 years 3 years
Squash/Zucchini and Pumpkin 2-5 years 4 years
Swede 4 years 4 years
Tomato 4-10 years 4 years
Turnip 4 years 4 years

There is no doubt that the main cause of seeds failing to germinate is that they are sown to deeply. Every seed has a reserve of food, which will enable the shoot to reach the surface, but if it’s sown too deep it will run out of food before reaching the light where it can start to manufacture more food, this is particularly true of very fine seeds.

As a general rule: cover seeds with seed compost twice the thickness as the seed, but it is impossible to be that accurate. Apart from the largest seeds, with smaller seeds run a shallow groove (drill) about ½cm (¼in) deep, with the side of your hand, in which to sow the seeds.

Sowing seed

Pour some of the seeds into the palm of your left hand (or right if left handed). Then with the other hand take some seeds between your thumb and first finger. Then, as you move your hand slowly up the groove, rub your finger and thumb gently together and the seeds will be released in a gentle stream (or sort of). Try to space them about 1½ – 2cm (½-¾in) apart, and then gently pinch the soil back over the seed, remembering the rule about covering depth.

Then place your clearly written label at the end of the row and gently pinch the soil back over the seed, remembering the rule about covering depth. Lettuce seed is a few millimetres long, but very thin – so very lightly cover. If seeds, especially fine seeds, are buried too deep they will not germinate well or not at all.

Finally, softly firm the compost down with the palm of your hand, or a flat piece of wood and gently water, preferably from below by placing the seed tray in a larger container (I use our bath) with a few centimetres of water in. This avoids disturbing the compost and seeds.

With very large seeds, such as broad beans, they have so much energy in their cotyledons that they be able to push their way up even if they are buried twice their width or even 6.5cm (2½in) deep. Large seeds, such as beans or squash, are best sown on their side in a hole made for them using your finger, a small stick, or dibber.

Some seeds need light, like celery and corn salad. Sow them on the surface and lightly sprinkle the seeds with small chippings or vermiculite chips allowing moisture to be held but also light to get in. There is a now a product called Vermiculite Seed Cover, which is made up of 3mm (in) vermiculite chips ideal for this purpose. Indeed, I tend to use it to cover most of the smaller seeds as it’s good at holding moisture and has no weed seeds in it.

Keep the soil moist, but not sodden. If it’s still frosty at night, the seed box will have to be kept in a glasshouse, a cold frame, or even indoors until the seeds are starting to germinate. It is a good idea to place a piece of clear polythene over the seed box to keep it moist. If smaller seeds begin to germinate and then dry out they will die, this is particularly so with very fine seeds like celery.

What is very important, is that as soon as the seedlings are up they need as much light as possible, otherwise they will be light starved, becoming long, thin, pale and sickly and be lucky to recover such early trauma! This is one of the most common mistakes beginners make.

Soil based and other seed composts were traditionally pasteurized to kill off weed seeds and insect pests. It is much better to have a fully living compost with added inoculants, such as Trichoderma viride as has already been described above. However, when using unpasteurized homemade seed compost there will be some weed seeds in it. So the best way is to sow in close rows about 3-4cm (1-1½in) apart, whether you are sowing in trays, or outside in a seedbed. When your seeds germinate, it will be obvious which are the seeds you sowed and any weeds that germinate, because yours will be in rows. Over time, you will begin to recognise different young seedlings, as well as weed seedlings.

Keep the soil moist, but not sodden. If it’s still frosty at night, the seed box will have to be in a glasshouse, a cold frame, or even indoors until the seeds are starting to germinate. It is a good idea to place a piece of clear polythene over the seed box to keep it moist. If smaller seeds begin to germinate and then dry out they will die, this is particularly so with very fine seeds like celery. As soon as they are up they need as much light as possible, otherwise they will be light starved, long, thin and pale and will be lucky to recover such early trauma.

Sowing seeds outside

Press seed drillIn Seed Drills: To sow seeds where they are to grow, first rake the soil as even and smooth as you can; then stretch a garden line where the row will be. For a single row of seeds, like cabbage or spinach, the easiest way is to gently press a wooden handle, or round rod, by the side of the garden line and gently press it with your foot to make a shallow groove (drill).

Then sow the seeds, aiming at spacings, and then gently cover the seeds by scraping the soil over them with the back of a garden rake.

For larger seeds that are to be sown in a single row, stretch out the garden line, then make a ‘V’ shaped groove with the corner of a draw hoe, sow the seeds and use the back of a garden rake to pull the soil over the seeds, remembering the depth rule.

Seed groove_1Seed groove_2Seed groove_3

 

 

 

Seed DrawFor larger seeds, like peas and beans, draw out a flat-bottomed drill with a draw hoe, along a garden line. Then sow a double row of seeds and then fill in the drill, by scraping the soil using the back of your garden rake.

Outside Seedbed: Every year, from the middle of spring onwards, I make a new seedbed at the end of one of my vegetable beds about 30cm (1ft) wide and the width of the bed. I sieve the top 4cm (1½in) of soil through a standard garden sieve, with 7mm (¼in)  holes, to remove stones, twigs and lumps. Sow your seeds in shallow drills 3-4cm (1-1½in) apart, the same as sowing them in seed trays, making sure to label each row.

Frost Fleece Covering a Bed

Frost Fleece Covering a Bed

It is a good idea to cover the rows of seeds with frost protection fleece against birds scuffling up the soil, or cats doing their business there. Frost protection fleece is a thin, unwoven, polypropylene fabric that lets in rain and quite a bit of light through, but it will need to be pegged down. I use 2.5mm (AWG 10, SWG 12) galvanized wire 30cm (1ft) long bent into a ‘U’ shape.

Sow the seeds thinly enough so that you can leave them in the seedbed until they have 2 or 4 true leaves and the seedlings are about 6-8cm (2-3in) high, when you can transplant them to their permanent positions. They seem to grow much healthier outside, but are more prone to slugs in wet areas, in which case you will need to use beer traps (see the chapter 13: ‘Pests & Diseases’ – TRAPS), or resort to growing them in seed trays; but we have found over forty years that we have had a lot less disease problems raising seedlings outside as long as the soil has warmed up.                        

Thinning Seedlings & Pricking Out

Having successfully provided healthy growing conditions for your seedlings, if the seeds were sown too thickly, you will need to thin the seedlings out so they do not struggle to compete with each other for light, nutrients and water. You can carefully pull the unwanted seedlings out with your finger and thumb, or use a small stick, or the end of a teaspoon. Thin them to 1½-2cm (-¾in) apart. The first leaves (cotyledons) are usually very different from the true leaves that come a little later. When there are two or four true leaves, you can move them (pricking out) into a deeper box or pot filled with a potting mix, which is richer than seed compost. Using a small pointed stick or the end of a teaspoon, lift them carefully holding them by their first leaves, not the stem as this might get damaged and let in fungus disease. Here is a suggested potting mix based on loam:

POTTING MIX

1)

  • 7 buckets loam
  • 3 buckets leaf mould (or peat)
  • 2 buckets sharp sand
  • 27–50 grams (1-1¾ ounces) fishmeal, or 2 handfuls Eco or Organic Fertiliser.

2)

  • 1 bucket sieved composted bark, or peat (or ½ bucket sieved bark + ½ bucket sieved leaf mould)
  • 1 bucket sieved garden compost
  • 2 handfuls Eco or Organic Fertiliser
  • 1 handful garden lime

Later when the seedlings have grown to about 6 to 8cm (2½-3in) you can transplant them out into the vegetable beds.

2. HARDENING-OFF & PLANTING OUT YOUNG PLANTS

Hardening-Off

With early sown seedlings that have been potted on and have grown to the stage where they will soon be ready to plant outside, they will need to be ‘hardened off’; this involves a two-week process of increasingly exposing the potted plants, by opening up the greenhouse, or better still a cold frame (see: chapter 17 for details), in the daytime and closing them at night, then eventually leaving them open during the night. This will avoid the shock of being put outside in the cold after enjoying a cosy warm place.

Don’t underestimate the effects of the shock if you live in areas where you can have cold springs! Seedlings can be seriously set back, so much so that their future growth can be retarded. Remember also that when planting out frost-tender plants, wait until after the last frosts before planting outside after hardening them off first. These include crops such as – Zucchini, Pumpkins, Cucumbers, Melons, Tomatoes, Peppers, Eggplants, Runner and Dwarf Beans.

As an extra precaution, you can plant them out, covered with a home-made cloche at night, using an open large plastic yogurt pot with the bottom cut off – see below.

 

Planting Out

Once you have hardened of your seedlings it will be time to plant them out where they are to grow. First prepare the soil, by forking it over, or spreading compost and forking it in, and if necessary, levelling it with a rake.

Next, check the recommended planting distances for each type. If the seedlings are growing in a seed box

, you will have to carefully ease each seedling out with a small trowel or an old kitchen teaspoon, making sure you retain as much compost around the roots as possible. Use your hand, or trowel to make a hole and gently lower the seedling into the hole, pushing back the soil and firming it around the plant at the same level the seedling was in the seed compost. The exceptions are brassicas (cabbage family), which can be planted up to the bottom of the first leaves – this encourages new roots and sturdier plants.

When planting out seedlings grown in a pot, hold the pot up side down with your hand holding the soil and plant. Tap the pot and the plant plus compost should come out. Place in the hole with as little disturbance to the root ball as possible. Planting out seedlings grown in toilet paper tubes, paper pots, or peat pots is easier – just plant the seedling in its container straight into the ground

level with the soil surface. Water the seedlings gently, but well.

Protection

Use cloches to protect your young seedlings until they have acclimatised. Various types of cloches can be used to warm up the soil, protect early crops by covering them in the evening and taking them off in the morning – see the section: ‘GLASSHOUSES, POLYTUNNELS, COLD FRAMES & CLOCHES’ – sub-section – Cloches.

Long Cloche

Long Cloches: used to be made of glass, but now are usually low polythene tunnels stretched over metal hoops and held down at the ends. These are useful to warm the soil in late winter, early spring and cover rows of plants. They can also be made by using a corrugated clear plastic sheet bent over and held in place with pegs or sticks. You can find cloche kits at your nearest garden department.

Homemade Cloches:

Homemade ClochesWe use 5 litre (1 gallon) spring water or juice bottles with the bottoms cut off and the caps taken off to place over newly planted-out seedlings at night until they have settled in, but they need a bamboo pushed through the top into the soil to stop them blowing over.

 

Single Plant Bell Cloches:

The alternative is to buy plastic ‘bell’ cloches –

Bell ClocheOther Protection:

Yogurt Pot

Yogurt pot_2

Yogurt pot_3

Protecting young seedlings with pinned down cut-off yogurt pots, & plastic flowerpots.

3. TAKING CUTTINGS

Homemade Hormone Liquid

You can buy rooting hormone powder or liquid, but you can also make your own out of willow shoots and water. Willow has very high levels of rooting hormone in its sap; that is why any fool can strike cuttings of willow.

a)  Cut enough fresh green willow shoots and chop them up into 2-3 cm (¾-1in) bits.
b)  Fill a jam jar with them and fill with water (rain water or filtered best).
c)   Leave for 24 hours.
d)  Drain the liquid into another jar.
e)  Place the cuttings upright, bottom side down, in the liquid and leave overnight.
f)   Place the cuttings in cutting compost as below.
g)  For small softwood cuttings, place in the cutting medium and water your cuttings with homemade hormone liquid.

Softwood Cuttings

Softwood cuttings are particularly good for sage, oregano and many climbing plants like passion fruit and kiwi fruit and many others.

1. Take cuttings from the new growth of that season in late spring, from shoots that show no sign of flowering or forming flower buds.They need to have at least three leaves and be around 10cm (4in) long.

Cuttings_1

 

 

 

 

 

2. Carefully cut away all the lower leaves.

Cuttings_2

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Trim the stem of the cutting just below the lowest leaf joint (node).

Cuttings_3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Either dip the stem in hormone rooting powder, tapping off the excess powder, or leave in homemade hormone liquid overnight (see above).

5. Put the cuttings in a pot filled with pure pumice chips, or compost made up of equal parts of perlite and peat. Make a hole in the compost near the sides of the pot with a small dibber, insert the cutting then push down the compost to firm the cutting. Space the cuttings 5cm (2in) apart, with leaves above the compost.

Cuttings_4

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Bend a piece of wire in a hoop, pushing the ends into the sides of the pot and cover with a polythene bag, securing the bag with a large rubber band.

Cutings_5

7. Place the pot on a saucer so you can add water occasionally to keep the compost moist, but not sodden.

8. Place the pots and saucers in a cold frame, or conservatory where they will get some sun, but not get too hot.

 

Softwood cuttings usually root in 2-7 weeks with a high success rate.

 

Hardwood Cuttings

Step 1 – Select suitable cuttings:

Hardwood cuttings are taken from deciduous trees and plants once they lose their leaves in winter and are dormant, such as Currants and Gooseberries. The best time for taking hardwood cuttings is from early autumn when the leaves drop to late winter just before the buds start growing.

Hardwood cuttings_1

1. Take cuttings that are close to pencil-thickness from current season’s growth – it will be mature and woody, not soft and green. Cut off any unripe green growth at the tips. To increase the chances of rooting cuttings – try to take cuttings where the current season’s wood (1 year old wood) joins the two-year-old wood. The base of the stem at this junction has the greatest potential for root development – it contains potential buds and the hormones required for developing roots. Hardwood cuttings are cut much longer than herbaceous cuttings because they take more time to develop roots and therefore need a good reserve of food stored in the cutting to keep them alive through the winter, starting with 20-25cm (8-10in).

2. Make a horizontal cut 6mm (¼in)  below the lowest bud at the base. Cut the top of the cutting 15-20cm (6-8in) from the base and just above a bud at an angle.

Hardwood cuttings_2

3. Make a ‘slit-trench’ outside by pushing a spade vertically into the soil and moving from side to side to make a ‘v’ shaped slit. Move the spade up and repeat until the slit is as long as you need.

 

 

4. Fill the bottom of the trench with sharp (course) sand for drainage and better rooting.

Hardwood Cuttings_3

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Push the cuttings into the sand 5cm (2in) apart – ½ below the surface of the filled in soil and half above.

Hardwood Cuttings_4

6. Fill in the trench with topsoil. If you are using multiple rows of slit trenches, place the rows 30cm (1ft) apart.

7. Water in the soil around the cuttings. The soil will remain damp over the winter period. Cuttings will root and be ready to plant next autumn.

 

 

4. LAYERING

This is a method of encouraging rooting to a shoot while still attached to the parent plant. The obvious examples are blackberries and boysenberries, which root naturally this way in the wild, and climbers like passion fruit. I have also used this method with New Zealand Cranberries, Chilean Guava (Ugni molinae) and Kiwi Berries (Actinidia arguta), among others.

Tip Layering:

This is suitable for Blackberry, Boysenberry and other briar fruit.

1. In late summer pull down as many shoots as you need of your blackberry or boysenberry.
2. Make a hole where the tip touches the soil. Place the tip in the soil and pin down with bent wire or forked twig.

Tip Layering3. Cover with soil until the end of the next summer.

4. It will have rooted by then, so dig up and cut from parent plant and plant in a permanent position.

 

Normal Layering:

Layering is usually carried out in early spring for shrubs like guavas, kiwi fruit and early summer for climbers like passion fruit.

1. Make a hole about 4-5cm (1½-2in) back from the tip of the cane or branch and peg it down with a forked stick or bent wire.

Layering2. For more woody branches slice some bark off on the underside.

3. Fill in the hole with soil leaving the tip of the shoot sticking above ground.

4. At the end of the next season, when the leaves have fallen, dig up the rooted shoot or branch, cut from the parent and plant in a nursery bed or permanent position.

5. GRAFTING

This is a very useful skill for propagating fruit and nut trees.

Purposes of Grafting:

  1. Grafting saves time. It might take ten to twenty years to get fruit form a seedling, but only three or four years by grafting.
  2. By choosing the right rootstock, one can obtain trees that vary from tall and vigorous to dwarf and everything in-between. For instance Cherries are very vigorous and to be able to grow a small to medium fan trained tree, we chose ‘Compact Stellar’ which is a semi-dwarf, 3-4 metre (10-13ft) tree on dwarfing stock. See chapter 10, ‘How to Grow Fruit’ for the appropriate rootstocks for different fruit and nut trees.
  3. For restoring an old exhausted tree.
  4. Growing more than one variety on one tree.
  5. Some trees are difficult or impossible to strike cuttings from. By growing a stock from seed, then grafting the chosen variety onto it, solves this problem.

Some grafting terms will be useful:

  • Stock, or Rootstock: This is the (usually young) rooted tree to be grafted onto. For trees like apples, pears, citrus, plums, etc., they will have specific varieties of rootstock that determine the growth of the adult tree.
  • Scion: This is the top part to be grafted onto the rootstock, and is taken from the variety you have chosen to grow.
  • Budding, or Bud Grafting: A form of grafting using a bud from the tree to be grafted from, grafted onto a rootstock. This is especially useful when there is a major difference between the thickness of the scion and the stock. I have also found this is the easiest method of grafting.

To quote from ‘The Complete Book of Gardening’ by J. Coutts’:

“It is only possible to graft a scion onto a stock of a nearly-allied species. Thus quinces, apples, pears and medlars can all be mutually grafted on to one another, so also can plums, peaches, apricots, and almonds, but it would be impossible to graft an apple onto an oak, or a plum onto a willow.”

Time of Year to Graft:

It is only possible to successfully graft while the sap is flowing, i.e. from the first sign of growth in the spring, to about midsummer. An old way to check if the stock is ready is to slit the bark; if it comes away easily exposing the polished wood beneath, it is ready.

Materials & Tools:

Grafting Knife: 

Grafting Knife

A very sharp small knife, or specialist grafting knife like this one is needed, which preferably has an additional brass tongue at the back for peeling back bark when performing bud grafting:

Grafting Tape:

Grafting Tape

The old way of tying and protecting the graft union from drying out was to strap the scion and stock together with raffia, then cover the whole join with melted grafting wax. Today a thin waterproof stretchable tape is used to perform the same task, both tying and protecting the union.

For larger jobs, a Pruning Saw, Chisel and Mallet may be necessary.

 

 

Whip-and-Tongue Grafting:

This is the most common form of grafting:

1. This form of grafting is usually only done if both the scion and rootstock are the same thickness.

2. The stock should be young and about the thickness of a finger. Ideally the stock should be more advanced than the scion.

3. The scion should be from a well-ripened one-year-old shoot, about 150mm long.

4. The scion should be cut where there are 2 good buds opposite each other, starting the cut just below the top bud.

5. Cut both the stock and scion at a sharp angle, and then cut a notch in each about half way so they lock together.

Grafting_1Grafting_2

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Push both together making sure the cambium layers (just below the bark) are lined-up, and then tape well with several layers of grafting tape.

Grafting_3
7. Make sure the grafted stock is regularly watered.

8. Once the scion buds have started growing, the graft has taken and the grafting tape can be removed.

 

 

 Whip-&-Tongue Grafting – Odd Sizes:

Whip & Tongue_1

Whip and tongue grafting can be done with the stock thicker than the scion. Prepare as above, but when positioning, place the scion to one side of the stock, so at least the cambium layer of both scion and stock are aligned on one side.

 

 

 

 

Budding, or Bud Grafting:

1. In the late spring or early summer, cut a length of stem from the variety you want to propagate. Cut of the leaves, but be sure to leave the leaf stalks on the cutting. To keep it fresh, place the stem in a bowl of water.

Budding_1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Using a sharp knife, cut a ‘T’ shaped slit in the bark of the rootstock, and peel back both sides of the downward slit very slightly (use the brass tongue on your grafting knife, if it has one).

Budding_3

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Slice off a bud from the prepared stem, by inserting a sharp knife, just below the bud, pulling the blade upwards, keeping the blade just under the bud.

Budding_4

4. At the back of the bud, you will see a small sliver of wood that was cut off with the bud. Remove this carefully with your fingernail or knife blade.

 

 

 

 

 

5. Now, using the leaf stalk as a handle, slide the bud into the ‘T’ shaped slot, you have already made, pushing gently down.

Budding_6
6. Cut away the excess sticking out at the top of the ‘T’ slot. Then tie with grafting tape or raffia, making sure you leave the bud exposed.

 

 

7. When the bud has started to grow, carefully remove the raffia or tape and using secateurs, prune off the growth above the new bud.

Budding_7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cleft Grafting:

1. In mid winter, cut back two side branches just above a fork, onto which you will graft a new variety in the early spring.

Cleft Grafting_12. At the end of winter, or early spring when the tree is showing signs of new growth, split each of the cut ends by hitting a machete, or large knife with a hammer.

Cleft Grafting_2
 

 

 

 

3. Cut four lengths of one-year-old stems (scions) from the new variety, about 10-15cm (4-6in) long. Cut the bottom end of each stem into a wedge shape.

Cleft Grafting_3

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Push the scions into each cut end, making sure the cambium layers (just beneath the bark) line up with the cambium layers on the cut branches. Secure the scions, by tying round with string, then cover the wounds with grafting wax.

Cleft Grafting_4Cleft Grafting_5  

 

 

 

6. DIVISION

This form of propagation is ideal for propagating perennial herbs like Thyme, Sorrel, Tarragon, Oregano, etc. Use a fork to dig up a section of the plant, with as much of the roots intact, and with a good ball of earth around the fibres. Do not divide the plant with a spade, as this will cut and damage the roots. Gently ease sections apart, using a knife if absolutely necessary. Then transplant, or pot up each section and water well.

 

7. RUNNERS

Both Raspberries and Strawberries send out runners – Raspberries underground and Strawberries on the surface.

Raspberries

Usually, you would dig out any underground runners each year, but if you want more plants leave some healthy runners in place until the autumn. You will see young runners sticking up out of the ground. Dig them up in the autumn, and if they have rooted, cut them off from the parent plant and plant out in their permanent place.

Strawberries

Strawberry plants will send out surface runners with small strawberry plants on the end. Peg down the little plantlets, so they root into the soil, but leave them attached to the parent plant. In the autumn they should have rooted and you can then cut them off from the parent plant, dig them up and transplant into pots or a nursery bed to grow on; transplanting them in the following autumn into their permanent places.

 

1,816 Responses to H. PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES

  1. of writing i am as well delighted to share my know-how here with colleagues. https://newone2017.com/

  2. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine? https://newone2017.com/

  3. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  4. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  5. Phil Haskew says:

    With thanks! Valuable information! https://newone2017.com/

  6. I like the helpful info you provide in your articles. I will bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly. https://bzp65.com/

  7. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine? https://newone2017.com/

  8. With thanks! Valuable information!

  9. With thanks! Valuable information!

  10. Silva Busbee says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine? https://bzp65.com/

  11. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  12. Jesusa Baj says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  13. What’s up, after reading this awesome piece https://newone2017.com/

  14. With thanks! Valuable information!

  15. I have been checking out many of your stories and i can state pretty https://newone2017.com/

  16. Karyn Alawdi says:

    With thanks! Valuable information! https://bzp65.com/

  17. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  18. Eugenie Fida says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  19. With thanks! Valuable information!

  20. of writing i am as well delighted to share my know-how here with colleagues. https://newone2017.com/

  21. Hong Rostad says:

    Awesome! Its in fact amazing paragraph, I have got much clear idea regarding from this piece of https://newone2017.com/

  22. Sang Laruffa says:

    With thanks! Valuable information! http://casinossir.com

  23. Ian Dabato says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  24. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  25. Madge Maney says:

    Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  26. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  27. good stuff. I will make sure to bookmark your blog. https://newone2017.com/

  28. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  29. Cary Anick says:

    What’s up, after reading this awesome piece https://newone2017.com/

  30. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini http://casinossir.com

  31. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  32. Boyce Cos says:

    Awesome! Its in fact amazing paragraph, I have got much clear idea regarding from this piece of https://newone2017.com/

  33. I have been checking out many of your stories and i can state pretty http://casinossir.com

  34. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  35. I like the helpful info you provide in your articles. I will bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly. https://newone2017.com/

  36. Jake says:

    … of life history strategies among riparian plants. For example, … Many morphological adaptations of plants (e.g., adventitious roots, … adventitious roots

  37. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  38. Hello. impressive job. I did not anticipate this. https://newone2017.com/

  39. Nikia Lyster says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  40. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  41. Logan Memolo says:

    I have been checking out many of your stories and i can state pretty https://newone2017.com/

  42. I like the helpful info you provide in your articles. I will bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly. http://casinossir.com

  43. Rosie Dozar says:

    I conceive this web site has got some real good information for everyone https://yong79.com/

  44. Dana Vanlaar says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  45. Leo Horky says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  46. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  47. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini https://newone2017.com/

  48. Mary Worthey says:

    Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini http://casinossir.com

  49. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini https://yong79.com/

  50. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  51. Ronny Twiest says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  52. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine? https://newone2017.com/

  53. Janetta Hall says:

    I’m quite certain I’ll learn lots of new stuff right https://yong79.com/

  54. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  55. Paula Reyna says:

    Hello. impressive job. I did not anticipate this. http://casinossir.com

  56. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  57. Judy Maison says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  58. I have been checking out many of your stories and i can state pretty https://yong79.com/

  59. I’m quite certain I’ll learn lots of new stuff right https://yong79.com/

  60. Lesley Raper says:

    With thanks! Valuable information! https://yong79.com/

  61. Kenia Coller says:

    Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  62. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  63. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  64. good stuff. I will make sure to bookmark your blog. http://casinossir.com

  65. I simply had to say thanks again. I do not know the things I would have gone through in the absence of the actual secrets shared by you about my area. It became a very traumatic issue for me, nevertheless being able to see a new specialized mode you treated it took me to jump with joy. I’m grateful for this work and in addition pray you recognize what a great job you are always doing instructing most people through your blog post. I am sure you have never come across any of us.Most impoprtant point is choosing words

  66. Ali Cranor says:

    With thanks! Valuable information! https://yong79.com/

  67. Rey Bresett says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  68. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  69. Cody Quiros says:

    It?s hard to come by knowledgeable people on this subject, however, you https://newone2017.com/

  70. Russel Teece says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  71. Korey Hillan says:

    I like the helpful info you provide in your articles. I will bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly. https://newone2017.com/

  72. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine? http://casinossir.com

  73. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  74. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  75. Janetta Hall says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  76. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  77. With thanks! Valuable information!

  78. With thanks! Valuable information!

  79. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  80. Becky says:

    Pygmy date palm care outdoors 2018

  81. With thanks! Valuable information!

  82. Awesome! Its in fact amazing paragraph, I have got much clear idea regarding from this piece of https://newone2017.com/

  83. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  84. sound like you know what you?re talking about! Thanks https://newone2017.com/

  85. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  86. Sarah says:

    There are ways of improving the growth of stem cutting propagations. Intensifying light allows cuttings to root and sprout faster, though the heat thus generated …

  87. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  88. With thanks! Valuable information!

  89. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  90. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  91. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  92. I’m quite certain I’ll learn lots of new stuff right https://newone2017.com/

  93. AappossyVorp says:

    Poids est comment dur votre sang pousse contre les parois de vos arteres lorsque votre coeur essence pompe le sang. Arteres sont les tubes qui transportent prendre offre sang loin de votre coeur. Chaque set votre manque de sensibilite bat, il pompe le sang a tous egards vos arteres a la prendre facilement de votre corps.
    https://www.cialispascherfr24.com/cialis-naturel-plante-jardin/

  94. I got what you mean,saved to fav, very decent site. https://newone2017.com/

  95. Clint Margel says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  96. Monroe Sins says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  97. Lola Leinen says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  98. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  99. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  100. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  101. Like says:

    Like!! Thank you for publishing this awesome article.

  102. MitsenkoMix says:

    online 20 compress

    bed5 20 mgs of online the day

  103. Mel Plack says:

    It?s hard to come by knowledgeable people on this subject, however, you http://casinossir.com

  104. MitsenkoMix says:

    online prescriptions online

    bed5 acheter online en espagn

  105. Woah! I’m really digging the template/theme of this site. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s challenging to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and appearance. I must say you have done a superb job with this. Additionally, the blog loads super fast for me on Firefox. Outstanding Blog!

  106. Likely I am likely to save your blog post. :)

  107. AlibinaMix says:

    online online tadalafi

    b1c3 online 100mg no prescription

  108. AlibinaMix says:

    online que pasa si

    b1c3 online soft tabs 100mg 50mg

  109. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  110. With thanks! Valuable information!

  111. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  112. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  113. AlibinaMix says:

    90d5 viagra s la vente en inde

    [url=http://viagraordergenk.com/]viagra coupon[/url]
    viagra sample

    viagra da prescrizione

  114. I do not know if it’s just me or if perhaps everyone else encountering issues with your site. It seems like some of the text on your content are running off the screen. Can someone else please provide feedback and let me know if this is happening to them too? This might be a problem with my internet browser because I’ve had this happen before. Many thanks

  115. It’s nearly impossible to find well-informed people about this topic, but you seem like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks

  116. I don’t know if it’s just me or if everyone else encountering problems with your blog. It appears as if some of the text within your posts are running off the screen. Can somebody else please provide feedback and let me know if this is happening to them as well? This might be a issue with my web browser because I’ve had this happen before. Thanks

  117. I have been browsing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all site owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be a lot more useful than ever before.

  118. AlibinaMix says:

    where to order online cheap

    b1c3 ecstacy online

  119. I do consider all the ideas you’ve offered on your post. They’re very convincing and will certainly work. Nonetheless, the posts are too quick for beginners. Could you please prolong them a bit from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

  120. Diego Billey says:

    Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  121. Pablo Kendal says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  122. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  123. Chas Mcneece says:

    Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  124. AntoninMix says:

    ja tem onlineo online

    0be3 cheap super online

  125. Every weekend i used to go to see this web site, for the reason that i want enjoyment, as this this web page conations genuinely nice funny information too.

  126. I read this piece of writing fully about the difference of hottest and preceding technologies, it’s awesome article.

  127. Jordon Koone says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  128. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  129. With thanks! Valuable information!

  130. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini https://php665.com/

  131. With thanks! Valuable information!

  132. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all of us you really realize what you’re speaking about! Bookmarked. Kindly additionally consult with my website =). We may have a hyperlink trade contract among us

  133. continuously i used to read smaller content which as well clear their motive, and that is also happening with this article which I am reading now.

  134. I was suggested this blog by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my difficulty. You are incredible! Thanks!

  135. AvelMix says:

    online farmacia interne

    55d9 ok mix online online

  136. Cola says:

    W ith real palm trees, now being offered in our online store, there is no reason why you can not own a real palm tree instead of an artificial palm tree.

  137. Normally I don’t learn article on blogs, however I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to take a look at and do it! Your writing style has been amazed me. Thanks, very great article.

  138. You ought to be a part of a contest for one of the highest quality sites on the web. I most certainly will recommend this web site!

  139. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  140. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  141. BorislavaMix says:

    online kaufen hannover

    d276 we recommend rx online

  142. With thanks! Valuable information!

  143. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  144. Kory Mattei says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine? https://php665.com/

  145. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  146. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  147. RozalinaMix says:

    texas online hot sauce

    2b9c online without online

  148. Ed Lamartina says:

    Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  149. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  150. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  151. RozalinaMix says:

    online for 99

    2b9c online use by athletes

  152. With thanks! Valuable information!

  153. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  154. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  155. I’m quite certain I’ll learn lots of new stuff right https://php665.com/

  156. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  157. Cary Anick says:

    Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  158. KupriyanMix says:

    acheter online luxembourg

    bb57 online en diabeticos

  159. Gerald says:

    Roebelenii Pygmy Date Palm is an airy tropical palm with beautiful arching fronds that does best in well draining soil. Buy online with Garden Goods Direct.

  160. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  161. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  162. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  163. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  164. I like the helpful info you provide in your articles. I will bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly. https://php665.com/

  165. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  166. Ray Geschke says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  167. With thanks! Valuable information! https://php665.com/

  168. Pat Knipp says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  169. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  170. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  171. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  172. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  173. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  174. ZaharovMix says:

    viagra price rm

    [url=http://viagraqoid.com/]buy viagra[/url]

    viagra

  175. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  176. minecraft says:

    Greetings! This is my first visit to your blog!
    We are a team of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community in the same niche.
    Your blog provided us valuable information to work on. You have done a extraordinary job!

  177. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  178. What’s up, after reading this awesome piece https://php665.com/

  179. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  180. Paula Reyna says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  181. Tyson Welder says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  182. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  183. EddaMix says:

    online for women canada

    0f24 online online soft tabs online

  184. minecraft says:

    At this time I am going away to do my breakfast, later
    than having my breakfast coming again to read additional news.

  185. minecraft says:

    Saved as a favorite, I love your blog!

  186. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  187. EddaMix says:

    gunstig original online kaufen

    0f24 gunstige online kaufen

  188. minecraft says:

    Hiya! Quick question that’s totally off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?
    My site looks weird when browsing from my apple iphone.
    I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able
    to resolve this problem. If you have any recommendations,
    please share. Thanks!

  189. minecraft says:

    Thanks for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts and I am waiting for your next write ups thanks once again.

  190. Kerri Cavins says:

    Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  191. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  192. AappossyVorp says:

    Torsion bras de quelqu’un est comment poupe votre sang pousse contre les parois de vos arteres lorsque votre coeur essence pompe le sang. Arteres sont les tubes qui transportent perseverent b gerer offre sang loin de votre coeur. Chaque set votre moelle bat, il pompe le sang a tous egards vos arteres a la flanerie de votre corps.
    https://www.cialispascherfr24.com/tadalafil-feminin-homme/

  193. minecraft says:

    Fantastic goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely
    great. I really like what you have acquired here, certainly like what you are saying and
    the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it sensible.

    I cant wait to read much more from you. This is
    actually a great site.

  194. minecraft says:

    Really when someone doesn’t understand then its up to other visitors
    that they will help, so here it takes place.

  195. minecraft says:

    What’s up to every single one, it’s really a good for me to go to see this web page, it contains
    useful Information.

  196. Karon Latona says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  197. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  198. With thanks! Valuable information!

  199. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  200. minecraft says:

    Simply want to say your article is as astonishing.
    The clarity for your submit is just cool and i can think you’re an expert on this subject.
    Fine with your permission allow me to clutch your feed to stay updated with
    approaching post. Thanks a million and please keep up
    the rewarding work.

  201. minecraft says:

    Exceptional post however , I was wondering
    if you could write a litte more on this subject?

    I’d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit more.
    Many thanks!

  202. minecraft says:

    Thank you, I’ve recently been looking for info about this subject for a while and yours
    is the greatest I’ve discovered till now. However, what concerning the bottom line?

    Are you certain about the supply?

  203. minecraft says:

    Yesterday, while I was at work, my cousin stole
    my iPad and tested to see if it can survive a forty foot drop,
    just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now broken and she has 83
    views. I know this is completely off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  204. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  205. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  206. minecraft says:

    hey there and thank you for your information – I’ve definitely picked
    up anything new from right here. I did however expertise some technical issues using this site,
    since I experienced to reload the website many times previous to I
    could get it to load properly. I had been wondering
    if your web host is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish
    loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and could
    damage your quality score if advertising and marketing with
    Adwords. Well I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for a lot more of your respective intriguing content.

    Ensure that you update this again soon.

  207. Andy Ewards says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  208. Avis Rolley says:

    Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  209. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  210. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  211. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  212. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini https://yong79.com/

  213. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  214. minecraft says:

    Hello every one, here every person is sharing these kinds
    of knowledge, thus it’s nice to read this blog, and I used to pay a visit
    this blog daily.

  215. minecraft says:

    My coder is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP.

    I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
    But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on various websites for about
    a year and am worried about switching to another platform.
    I have heard good things about blogengine.net.
    Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress posts
    into it? Any kind of help would be greatly
    appreciated!

  216. Sheri says:

    Functions and Examples of Adventitious Roots. … Parasitic Roots: Parasitic plants develop adventitious roots capable of sucking nutrients from the host …

  217. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  218. minecraft says:

    This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger.
    I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more
    of your great post. Also, I have shared your website in my social networks!

  219. Pretty! This was an incredibly wonderful post.
    Many thanks for supplying this information.

  220. Your style is so unique in comparison to other folks I’ve read stuff from.
    Thank you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity,
    Guess I’ll just book mark this page.

  221. Greetings! Very helpful advice in this particular
    post! It is the little changes which will make the most important changes.
    Thanks for sharing!

  222. I’ve been exploring for a little bit for any high-quality articles or
    weblog posts on this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last
    stumbled upon this site. Studying this info So i am glad to express that I have an incredibly excellent uncanny
    feeling I discovered just what I needed. I so much
    definitely will make sure to don?t omit this site and provides it a glance regularly.

  223. Thanks for your marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading
    it, you happen to be a great author. I will ensure that I
    bookmark your blog and definitely will come back down the road.

    I want to encourage you to definitely continue your great writing, have a nice holiday weekend!

  224. Hey would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time making a decision between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your design and style
    seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something unique.

    P.S My apologies for getting off-topic but I
    had to ask!

  225. LeonginaMix says:

    online 20 mg 12 preis

    d6e8 online best

  226. LeonginaMix says:

    online 20 mg 12 preis

    d6e8 generique online foru

  227. Having read this I believed it was really informative.

    I appreciate you finding the time and effort to put this article together.
    I once again find myself personally spending way too much time
    both reading and commenting. But so what, it
    was still worth it!

  228. Steve Gaumer says:

    Great site. Cheers for such a valuable content. Now if you really wanna lose some weight, make sure you visit this link: http://bit.ly/2OHLQVQ

  229. When I initially left a comment I appear to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each
    time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment.
    Perhaps there is a way you can remove me from that service?
    Appreciate it!

  230. If some one desires to be updated with most recent technologies therefore he must be visit this web page and be up
    to date everyday.

  231. Hey there! Do you know if they make any plugins to help
    with SEO? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m
    not seeing very good success. If you know of any please share.
    Cheers!

  232. I’ve been exploring for a little bit for any high-quality articles or
    weblog posts in this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this site.
    Studying this information So i’m happy to convey that I’ve a very just right uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I needed.
    I such a lot undoubtedly will make sure to don?t put out of your mind this site
    and provides it a glance regularly.

  233. I every time spent my half an hour to read this webpage’s posts daily along with a cup of coffee.

  234. With thanks! Valuable information!

  235. Eldon Allara says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  236. Alonso Feser says:

    Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  237. With thanks! Valuable information!

  238. KamaMix says:

    the best type of online

    57c8 online long wait after eating

  239. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  240. KamaMix says:

    pharmacie online en ligne

    57c8 para que es el online

  241. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  242. With thanks! Valuable information!

  243. With thanks! Valuable information!

  244. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  245. Hello. impressive job. I did not anticipate this. https://yong79.com/

  246. Cruz Sifford says:

    Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  247. of writing i am as well delighted to share my know-how here with colleagues. https://yong79.com/

  248. Good day! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog platform
    are you using for this website? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had issues with
    hackers and I’m looking at options for another platform.
    I would be awesome if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

  249. I blog frequently and I genuinely thank you for your information. Your article has truly
    peaked my interest. I am going to book mark your website and keep checking for new information about once per week.
    I subscribed to your Feed too.

  250. ShaylaRpzkx says:

    Perfect update of captchas solution software “XEvil 4.0″:
    captchas recognition of Google (ReCaptcha-2 and ReCaptcha-3), Facebook, BitFinex, Bing, Hotmail, SolveMedia, Yandex,
    and more than 8400 another categories of captchas,
    with highest precision (80..100%) and highest speed (100 img per second).
    You can use XEvil 4.0 with any most popular SEO/SMM software: iMacros, XRumer, GSA SER, ZennoPoster, Srapebox, Senuke, and more than 100 of other programms.

    Interested? There are a lot of introducing videos about XEvil in YouTube.

    FREE DEMO AVAILABLE!

    Good luck!

  251. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  252. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in you own urine?

  253. Rex says:

    Taking cuttings or propagating plants is not about expensive equipment, it’s about doing your homework.Preperations , how to, where to cut your plant and growing …

  254. sound like you know what you?re talking about! Thanks http://casinossir.com

  255. payday loan consolidation reliable payday loans bad credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]personal loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  256. loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]elastic loans[/url]

  257. Paydayloan says:

    cash advances personal loans guaranteed approval bad credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]direct loans student loans[/url]

  258. I do accept as true with all of the ideas you have presented in your post. They’re really convincing and can certainly work. Still, the posts are very quick for novices. May just you please prolong them a bit from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

  259. credit loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  260. Payday Loans says:

    poor credit loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval low rate payday loans [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]bad credit loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  261. loans guaranteed approval guaranteed loan quick loans [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]guaranteed loans[/url]

  262. loans guaranteed approval poor credit loans guaranteed approval loans direct [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]30 day payday loans[/url]

  263. poor credit loans guaranteed approval guaranteed loans loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]poor credit loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  264. Payday Loan says:

    bad credit loans guaranteed approval apply for credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]guaranteed loans[/url]

  265. bad credit loans guaranteed approval payday loan vancouver personal loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]best loan[/url]

  266. With thanks! Valuable information!

  267. Josef Conejo says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  268. With thanks! Valuable information!

  269. Debi Beltron says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  270. Quick Loan says:

    loans guaranteed approval guaranteed loan installment loans direct lenders [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]poor credit loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  271. Loan Cash says:

    loans guaranteed approval how to get money fast loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]near me[/url]

  272. Deedee Bundy says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  273. Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  274. Luis Steifle says:

    Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  275. Lizeth Inch says:

    Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  276. King Neahr says:

    With thanks! Valuable information! http://casinossir.com

  277. Payday says:

    poor credit loans guaranteed approval payday loans no credit check no faxing payday loans in corpus christi [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]get money now[/url]

  278. poor credit loans guaranteed approval credit loans guaranteed approval poor credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]installment loan definition[/url]

  279. payday loans in corpus christi personal loans near me bad credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  280. With thanks! Valuable information!

  281. fax payday loan poor credit loans guaranteed approval bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  282. Get A Loan says:

    bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval loans of america [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]guaranteed loans[/url]

  283. personal loans guaranteed approval best payday loans direct lender loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]poor credit loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  284. Drew Rodney says:

    With thanks! Valuable information!

  285. Paydayloan says:

    poor credit loans guaranteed approval personal cash advance loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  286. loans guaranteed approval poor credit loans guaranteed approval payday loans no credit check no employment verification [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loan companies near me[/url]

  287. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini https://yong79.com/

  288. loans guaranteed approval guaranteed loan bad credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  289. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  290. Quick Loan says:

    local payday loans personal loan companies guaranteed loans [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  291. bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval same day personal loans [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]safe online payday loans[/url]

  292. loans guaranteed approval fast quick loans guaranteed loan [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]immediate loans[/url]

  293. online payday loans no fax loans guaranteed approval bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]guaranteed loan[/url]

  294. ez loan bad credit loans guaranteed approval poor credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]guaranteed loans[/url]

  295. Online Loan says:

    loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval guaranteed loans [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  296. Hello just wanted to give you a quick heads up.
    The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Opera.
    I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet
    browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you
    know. The design look great though! Hope you get the issue solved soon. Cheers

  297. Payday Loans says:

    bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval ez loan credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  298. Get A Loan says:

    real payday loans online loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  299. payday loan center credit loans guaranteed approval credit loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  300. Stan Trudo says:

    Black on black in the Charg I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini

  301. multiple payday loans guaranteed loans no credit check loan [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]instant payday loans no credit check[/url]

  302. guaranteed loans guaranteed loan bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  303. There’s definately a lot to know about this issue. I really like all of the points
    you’ve made.

  304. loans guaranteed approval bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]bad credit personal loans guaranteed approval[/url]

  305. Speedy Cash says:

    personal loans guaranteed approval personal loans guaranteed approval loans guaranteed approval [url=https://loansguaranteedapproval.com/]loans without credit checks[/url]

  306. 女明星 says:

    介紹肌膚保養系列中的眼部保養産品。

  307. Black on black in the Charger I’m creepin’ Rub me the right way, you might get a genie B.o.B, black Houdini